Best Battery Electric Vehicles - BEV

➛ Remarks ➠ /23
➛ Tesla Success and Full Self-Driving
Terminology questions?

Thanks to Tesla, the US has gained back its automotive leadership passing Japan and Germany! BMW has lost many customers to Tesla. The Tesla car is the most intelligent and travel-reliable with an extensive network of superchargers. Tesla evolves itself via (WiFi) the Internet. Tesla EV is the unreachable benchmark for all carmakers. The Tesla Model 3 is a more affordable EV than other Tesla cars. A half-million Tesla Model 3’s were pre-ordered during 2016-2017 by depositing $1000 on More than 100,000 orders were made in Tesla Stores on March 31 during one extended working day for Tesla, even before anybody could see the car! One of the British anchors said about the Triumph of the Tesla: Most spoiled consumers (referred to the US) in the World, who can buy any best car, standing in line all day and pay $1000 for the car that they even did not see!! Moreover: One of the old American customs is: You test-drive a car before you buy it. You can drive Tesla on any major highway, anywhere in the continental US, driving about 300 miles and charging less than an hour (Supercharger V1 2012. 130kW) between drives due to the widespread Tesla Supercharges. In 2022 any Tesla will be able to drive to Alaska and charge less than 20 minutes by 250kW V3. This means Teslas do not cause Range Anxiety while other EV-s are more limited to driving locally and require more planning. Now you can send your Tesla home (but the law does not allow it) and save on parking while you work downtown. It even parks itself. A nerd in the Tesla (with all those exciting features) is a kid in a candy store.

Tesla Model 3 is beats 100+ competitors to win “New Car of the Year” Award. Other models of Tesla has so many awards -- it will take another page to list all those awards. While Teslas are not necessarily cheap, they have a fantastic value for the money. Moreover, other EV-s do not have features from the future and superior specs.

The Full Self-Driving (FSD) features are explained on the color-coded picture below. The FSD is safer than human driving and will be even safer in the future. The FSD has contained the EAP. FSD Some manufacturers call Tesla EAP the Super Cruise or/and Front Collision Avoidance System. Any EV with EAP shall have 2 systems present: Adaptive Cruise with Stop-and-Go and Autonomous Lane Changer (ALC) with Line Hold. All Tesla models have the hardware needed for full self-driving (FSD) capability and you can make a one-time payment anytime to engage it. With all this new terminology, for any EV purchase in the future--the logic is: FSD works only if Adaptive Cruise Control (part of EAP) has the Stop-and-Go feature. Keep in mind that if you buy an EV (not Tesla) with EAP that does not have the Stop & Go feature, it means you cannot upgrade the EV to FSD in the future, as the manufacturer does not plan the FSD to be on the EV.

The Physics of the aerodynamic resistance is the same for any kind of moving vehicle, it depends on a particular vehicle drag-coefficient, area orthogonal to the flow and speed - V2. Drive your EV slower if you have any doubts to reach your destination. The high MPG decrease in high speed also happens with any ICE car, but nobody cares because almost any highway exit has a gas station. According to a government's research in heavy vehicles fuel economy: "Increasing your highway cruising speed from 55mph to 75mph can raise fuel consumption as much as 20%. You can improve your gas mileage 10% – 15% by driving at 55mph rather than 65mph". A parachute has the same drag-coefficient as an old army truck. That is why trucks have a lower speed limit. And the first purpose of the "Highway Speed Limit" is a fuel economy - not a safety.

➛ Remarkable EV-s:

BMW i3 (Nickname-True Hybrid) with Renge-Extender (REx) is the best 'Serial' Hybrid Vehicle or PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle). A Serial Hybrid has just a little less efficiency as BEV because a traction motor is ONLY an electric engine while ICE produces electricity (on demand) at constant (optimal) rotation. A modern electric engine has an efficiency of about 94% versus a modern ICE -- about 20%. Parallel Hybrid (Prius or GM Volt) has twice less efficiency than BEV because ICE is making it lower. ICE efficiency is ranged between 15% (heavy Hummer) and 26% (Mazda RX.. with Wankel ICE). The ICE Thermodynamic Theoretical limit is 45%! It means ICE in the future will never exceed that efficiency! Another Efficiency approach would be an MPG (Mile Per Gallon) unit, where is BEV has 100-150 MPGe versus Parallel Hybrid (Prius) has 52 MPG. There is another point why DMV does issue an HOV sticker to BMW i3. In Europe, BMW i3 has a manual "Start REx" button where is REX may work the entire trip. Some British drivers evidently (YouTube) has driven distance about 300 miles on a single charge and a single tank (few gallons of gasoline) on BMW i3 running the small ICE entire trip. US DOT banned the "Start REx" button and the small ICE starts (on the US BMW i3) automatically when traction battery discharged below 20%. The ICE just charges battery after that, supporting the battery capacity between 20% and 10%. In this case power limited and BMW i3 can drive (no more 45-55 mph) indefinite distance (theoretically) by refueling small tank every 66 miles. The refueling and driving with a discharged battery are not recommended by the manufacturer. BMWi3 is the best serial hybrid according to its efficiency. The Main Cons - the BMW i3 has tiny "bicycle" tires.

Renault Zoe is one of the best EV developed in France. It has a 43Kw 3 phase fast charger. You can buy it in Europe for about €15,000 with a monthly payment for battery leasing. Sion EV with solar panels has the same leasing option.

Chevy Bolt (Opel Ampera in EU) and Korean Kona are two of the main competitor of Tesla, considering those as the best commuter and crossover (respectively) EV-s.

Sono Motors will offer you a contract of sale for the Sion in 2021. The agreement comes with a right of withdrawal and rescission of two weeks. For an additional charge, Automotive Solutions GmbH will deliver the Sion to the location of your preference, but only for EU customers. The Sion has solar panels with a 24% efficiency of total generation peak power of 1.2kW. That means: if you leave this BEV with an empty battery and pick up it after ~3-8 sunny days then you can drive it about 100 miles on the highway for 0$/mile! A great feature for frequent flyers. Also, the Sion has a huge advantage over ICE car in Sahara desert or Tundra (in Summer) where are no gas stations and no chargers!

Audi e-Tron SUV has a towing capacity of 4000lb! It has a 150 kW fast-charger and precision German engineering. "Audi e-tron" is the EV division of Audi, a subsidiary of Volkswagen Group. All references to Audi in this website are for Audi 'e-Tron only'. The fact is VW Group and few other car manufacturers dismissed all ICE R&D in 2019 because it is wasting. We also predict that the day will soon come when all Audi cars are electric cars.

The champion of the efficiency is Dutch-made Lightyear One because it is only one EV that uses (in order of importance):

  1. Low power and high-efficiency In-Wheel-Motor
  2. Low drag-coefficient of the Fastback body. It is a little bit less than Tesla M3
  3. High efficiency (~40%) durable Solar Panels 5 m2, generating a little bit less than 2kW on average during daylight. PV panels charge a 60 kWh EV traction battery pack with speed 7mph. So, simple arithmetic: 60kWh/2kW=30hours or ~ 3 days in June for a full charge!

The LightYear EV is a more advanced version of Sion, but it is a few times more expensive than Sion. The Dutch Co. claims: The Lightyear made 450 miles (WLTP not EPA) on a highway using only 60kWh! So, simple arithmetic for the 'roughly estimated' (not measured) Energy Consumption: 60,000Wh/450miles=133Wh per mile or 82Wh/km. The WLTP measured efficiency is lower than estimated - 104Wh/km. Eg. The best from Tesla EPA efficiency - 253wh/mile. And it can drive on Sahara road with speed 12mph forever (w/o air-conditioner), 3 times faster than a Camel w/o air-conditioner too. The Fuel Economy measured in [MPGe] is proportional to the EV efficiency [Wh/mi], AKA Energy Consumption.
Here is another trick: Park it in Airport in a sunny spot with an empty battery, fly back from your trip after a few days and the battery will be full!

➛ Tesla advantages over other EVs

The main advantage: Tesla drivers do not have a Range Anxiety because of the density of Superchargers and the smart Tesla guidance. The density is approx every 100 miles on major highways (from 6 to 40 stalls) all around North America. Any EV even with CCS fast charger usually used as a local commuter versus Tesla drives at maximum highway speed anywhere in US/South Canada/Mexico. See model 3 cannonball-record 45 hours from LA to NYC. Total mileage: 2,849.

Tesla could be remote-controlled via the Internet and opened/closed by your smartphone, it also may be opened/closed by proximity Wi-Fi sensors if your phone has Wi-Fi on and Tesla app is running. But always hold your Tesla card in your pocket in case if your phone would be discharged or lost. Eg: My friend forgot his book in my car, so I gave him the location of my Tesla in San-Francisco and remotely opened and closet it (after he got it) from my hotel in Paris. The Summon is valuable when it is heavy rain -- I did wait for my Tesla about 15 minutes (walking will be faster but unpleasable) and I seated in my Tesla with a dry clause. Also, Tesla has remote climate control on your phone, Valet mode control, and others remote control those any regular car has on a car proprietory fob. You can install the Tesla app on any Android or Apple phone if you have the password/username from your Tesla account.

Tesla embedded a security feature in the DC charging communication protocol: Supercharger recognizes your Tesla car (not a driver) and charges your online account w/o necessity to use any card (credit card or any token etc.) It saves time and reports to your phone (or laptop) immediately: a dollar amount and used energy [kWh] upon completion of your charge. It is approximately $10-$20 per 300 miles (or 75kWh) depends on a county.
The most important security derivative and endowment from this feature:
Let's suppose 2 pro-car-thieves did steal an EV-x and any Tesla. They disabled GPS on both EV-s. However, when Tesla has begun to supercharge then Tesla Security Officer will know what charging stall the stolen Tesla uses even 'all' security features are disabled. While the EV-x may not be recovered.

Road trip planning or Smart Guidance includes:

Lifespan: Almost all electric motors work 24x7 well over 150 years on water pumping stations around the World. Tesla Model S Guinness record holder poised to hit 1.2-million km (745,650mi) milestone in Germany Owner paid practically for tires only -- From "Since 2014, the Model S P85 had required a battery change at 470,000 km. Three electric motors had been used in the vehicle during its initial 1 million km run as well. These repairs were all covered under the vehicle’s warranty, however, resulting in very little maintenance costs for the Tesla owner."

SAE (J3016) Automation (AKA Autonomy) Levels
Tesla is the only production car that passed Automation Level 3 and almost all of Level 4 in 2020
SAE Level Automation Name Definition Who is driving Monitoring of driving environment
0 No Automation The automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control Human Human driver
1 Driver Assistance Hands on: The driver and the automated system share control of the vehicle. Examples are systems where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls engine power to maintain a set speed (Cruise Control) or engine and brake power to maintain and vary speed (Adaptive Cruise Control or ACC); and Parking Assistance, where steering is automated while speed is under manual control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) Type II is a further example of Level 1 self-driving. A automatic emergency braking which alerts the driver to a crash and permits full braking capacity is also a Level 1 feature, according to Autopilot Review magazine Human and system Human driver
2 Partial Hands off: The automated system takes full control of the vehicle: accelerating, braking, and steering. The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. The shorthand "hands off" is not meant to be taken literally – contact between hand and wheel is often mandatory during SAE 2 driving, to confirm that the driver is ready to intervene. The eyes of the driver might be monitored by cameras to confirm that the driver is keeping their attention to traffic. SystemHuman driver
3 Conditional Eyes off: The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.g. the driver can text or watch a movie. The vehicle will handle situations that call for an immediate response, like emergency braking. The driver must still be prepared to intervene within some limited time, specified by the manufacturer, when called upon by the vehicle to do so. You can think of the automated system as a co-driver that will alert you in an orderly fashion when it is your turn to drive. An example would be a Traffic Jam Chauffeur,[61] another example is the international Automated Lane Keeping System (ALKS) regulation System Human driver
4 High Mind off: As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat. Self-driving is supported only in limited spatial areas (geofenced) or under special circumstances. Outside of these areas or circumstances, the vehicle must be able to safely abort the trip, e.g. park the car, if the driver does not retake control. An example would be a robotic taxi or a robotic delivery service that only covers selected locations in a specific area. System System
5 Full Steering wheel optional: No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic EV that works on all roads all over the world, all year around, in all weather conditions. System System