A [unit] of measurement named after scientists must be capitalized to honor its inventor.
The abbreviation of any unit in science should be in square brackets: [T], [N], [kWh] versus non-capitalized [sec]ond or [mi]le.
Where is [T] stands for engineer-inventor Nicola Tesla, [A] - physicist André-Marie Ampère,
[W] - inventor James Watt, and [N] - Sir Newton, Isaac - famous physicist.
A - Ampere [A]. A unit of electric current equal to a flow of 6.242×1018 electrons per second.
Multiple - 50 Amperes or 50 Amps as an Electrician's Jargon.
AC - Alternating Current [A] is a flow of the electric charge that periodically reverses direction.
We have 2 kinds of residential frequencies around the World 50 Hz and 60 Hz. 60 Hz means current changes direction (polarity)
60 times per second in US/Canada/Mexico electrical outlets. a military and an aviation use 480 Hz and Europe uses 50 HZ.
Adaptive Cruise Control - some car manufacturers called it as Dynamic/Radar Cruise Control or Smart. The primary safety
purpose of the system is Forward Collision Avoidance. The system holds preset constant distance between your car and
a car in front of you. A driver should set a distance, measured by a number of cars (or seconds). E.g: on a highway, it should not be
one car distance that would make followed driver nervous, but in heavy city traffic it may be the one car distance when you stop
because it is odd to stop on a city intersection a four cars distance behind the front car, Moreover, if your Adaptive
Cruise Control includes Stop-and-go feature. W/o the Stop-and-go feature driver should re-engage all systems again after any
stop, eg. on a red traffic light. If an Adaptive Cruise Control (mostly included as an option in a package) has the Stop-and-go feature
than the car will automatically follow a front car after a full stop on an intersection w/o touching of any controls.
There is always a safety feature if you touch a brake pedal all systems (the cruise and line changing) are
AFV -Alternative Fuel Vehicle. A a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than diesel or gasoline.
ALC - Auto Lane Change. The ALC system is a logical possessor of Lane-Keeping System (common name: Hands-free steering)
AKA partial Lane Departure Warning LDW: Historically, LDW was developed first, the next step is keeping the lane
automatically by your car, finally, Tesla developed ALC to complete the system. There are 2 requirements for safe ALC:
The car must keep a lane safely and do not hit a front car if a driver does not steer. It means Adaptive Cruise Control must be engaged first
as an assurance that your car NEVER rear-ends a car in the front while keeping the lane.
Your car must have a surrounding observation system (cameras or radars) for the safe ALC.
If a driver engages ALC then the car will change a current lane only in 2 cases:
A driver turns ON the right/left (e.g.) turn signal and the system engages all right/left side cameras, calculating when it is safe to change
the lane. It usually does not change for a long time in heavy traffic.
A driver forces his steering wheel (driver fills a little steering wheel resistance) to gain the control, that disengages the ALC.
Eg. Some times the ALC can not handle a heavy traffic lane change and driver forces it,
receive a hunk from another driver, the hunk makes a difference between 2 cases :).
Some car manufacturers combine lane-keeping (not full ALC) and Adaptive Cruise Control under.
"Super Cruise" that is engaged by one button and not separately. Eg. Tesla has 2 clicks on a single
stick to engage FSD. And 1 click - for the Adaptive-Cruise.
AP - AutoPilot contains a Super/Smart/Adaptive Cruise
and other features equal to AI inside EV computer to provide safe autonomous driving. The AP and any
related system are disengaged if you hit the brake or force the steering wheel to turn your car.
according to the current law: your hands must be always on your steering
wheel. There is many different DUIT (Driving Under the Influence of a Technology :)
tickets in different states for show-off an Autopilot. Any of those tickets usually contains a "Public Endanger" phrase.
E.g. London Tesla driver's license has been suspended for a few years even nothing happened, but a policeman
caught the driver on camera while he was sitting in the passenger seat and Tesla was driving on a highway autonomously.
In the future with no speed limit driving, it would be safer to drive using an AI because
a computer processes any event a million times faster than a human brain. A computer rarely makes mistakes, if it properly programmed by a human.
0. A0l - "No autonomy" - Ordinary or economy ICE vehicles without even common Cruise Control.
A1l - "Driver Assistance" - Expensive ICE cars or EV-s with limited features such as 'adaptive' cruise control
and lane-keep assist to help with driving fatigue. Adaptive Cruise is called Front Collision Avoidance System by some companies.
A good example of cars with Driver Assistance would be Toyota Prius Prime or Tesla Model 3 with the lowest price
A2l - Partial autonomy. L2 autonomy can assist in controlling speed and steering.
It will help with stop-and-go by maintaining the distance between you and the vehicle in front of you.
The following systems should be present to be considered as the Level 2:
Adaptive Cruise Control
Autonomous Lane changer ALC with Line Hold
A3l - "Conditional autonomy" - Level 3 autonomous vehicles are capable of driving themselves,
but only under certain conditions and with many limitations, such as limited-access divided highways at a certain speed.
Drivers are still required behind the wheel. A human driver is still required
to take over if the road conditions fall below ideal or it drives over a construction zone. The good example could be any Tesla model
A4l "High autonomy" - Level 4 autonomous vehicles can drive themselves without human interactions (Tesla Summon) but will be restricted
to known use cases. We're not too far from seeing driverless vehicles out on public roads. Tesla embedded Google/iPhone calendar
in 2018 to the system. It drives you if the calendar has a proper destination. I share my G. calendar with my boss and sometimes
I do not know where my Tesla is driving me because my boss typed the destination.
Level 4 vehicles capable of driving themselves in most environments and road conditions. Tesla starts to recognize
road construction cons in 2020 but it safer to drive "old-style" via any construction zone. E.g. my Model 3 suddenly slow down in 2019
to 35 from 55 on 50 mph construction speed limit that disappoints hanking drivers behind, but in 2020 it bacame more adwanced and stable. That includes the summon too,
it was garage in/out child play in 2017, in 2020 you can call it within a mile if your phone has stable Internet
and be dry in a heavy shower. Only Tesla has A4l from all production EVs
A5l - "Full autonomy" - The level of the Future is in test mode now, The test on public roads
requires an especial commercial permit from the government. Some states require a driver's presence too.
Level 5 capable vehicles should be able to monitor and maneuver through all road conditions and require AI and no human interventions.
L5 has 2 main competitors: Waymo and Tesla. Waymo provides Software and hardware to automotive companies or startups while
Tesla has the final product as an artificially intelligent car today, but due to State regulations and legal battles it is
allowed to use only partial Tesla Full Self-Driving FSD features so, a driver must hold
the steering wheel and can not send Tesla home. Tesla successfully integrated Google/iOS calendar in the system
that I started to use in 2018. The less expensive and
efficient way to install the Waymo system to an EV, while ICE required many additional mechanical interface systems.
That why you see on city streets mostly GM Bolt
(with a startup company name - rarely Waymo) frequently testing the self-driving equipment.
One of the Level 5 Autonomy Volvo 360c prototype EV has a bed instead of the driver's seat.
A5l+ ➠ "Full Autonomy + Remote Assistance" The secure redundancy for important missions, e.g: Mars Rover, Drone strike or VIP monthly $$$ rate in the future.
SAE (J3016) Automation (AKA Autonomy) Levels
Tesla is the only production car that passed Automation Level 3 and almost all of Level 4 in 2020
Who is driving
Monitoring of driving environment
The automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control
Hands on: The driver and the automated system share control of the vehicle. Examples are systems where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls engine power
to maintain a set speed (Cruise Control) or engine and brake power to maintain and vary speed (Adaptive Cruise Control or ACC); and Parking Assistance, where steering is
automated while speed is under manual control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) Type II is a further example of Level 1 self-driving. A automatic emergency braking which alerts the driver to a crash and permits full braking capacity is also a Level 1 feature, according to Autopilot Review magazine
Human and system
Hands off: The automated system takes full control of the vehicle: accelerating, braking, and steering. The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene
immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. The shorthand "hands off" is not meant to be taken literally – contact between hand and wheel is
often mandatory during SAE 2 driving, to confirm that the driver is ready to intervene. The eyes of the driver might be monitored by cameras to confirm that
the driver is keeping their attention to traffic.
Eyes off: The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.g. the driver can text or watch a movie.
The vehicle will handle situations that call for an immediate response, like emergency braking. The driver must still be prepared to intervene within some
limited time, specified by the manufacturer, when called upon by the vehicle to do so. You can think of the automated system as a co-driver that will alert you in an orderly
fashion when it is your turn to drive. An example would be a Traffic Jam Chauffeur, another example is the international Automated Lane Keeping System (ALKS) regulation
Mind off: As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver's seat.
Self-driving is supported only in limited spatial areas (geofenced) or under special circumstances. Outside of these areas or circumstances,
the vehicle must be able to safely abort the trip,
e.g. park the car, if the driver does not retake control. An example would be a robotic taxi or a robotic delivery service that only covers selected locations in a specific area.
Steering wheel optional: No human intervention is required at all.
An example would be a robotic EV that works on all roads all over the world, all year around, in all weather conditions.
BEV - Battery (only) Electric Vehicle. EV is a general acronym while a BEV means: no other source of energy (to charge
traction battery) has been involved. Modern BEV mostly uses a variation of Li-Ion chemistry. The
has many advantages over a predecessor s (Ni-Cd or Lead-acid). One of most important: There is no battery memory effect and the
battery does not need periodic full discharge cycles (as an additional service), that degrades (Capacity Retention [%])
any battery significantly. Also, Li-ion has more charging cycles, that easily brings the battery pack life span to 70-300 kilo-miles.
It depends on a manufacturer and how a driver charges and discharges the battery pack.
CAFE - Corporate Average "Fuel Economy". a federal agency for a regulation to reduce energy consumption by increasing a vehicle's fuel economy.
Cannonball run - over 2800 miles (depending on the route)
unsanctioned (~non-stop?!) speed (Average~>100mph) drive. From/to Red Ball Garage, NYC from/to Portofino Hotel in Redondo Beach, CA.
Any driver could be legally detained on following chargers: Public Safety Endangerment or/and Reckless Driving
depends on passing State regulations and actual police speed gun reading.
State Troopers may confiscate driver's Speed Radar Detector because it is illegal to use in some states. ICE car record
- 26:38 on 04/2020 (Covid-19 road emptiness and no Police presence) by modified Audi A8L with additional fuel tanks. Avg. speed - 106mph EV record - 45:16 in 2019 by modified Tesla Model 3
Maximum speed was 140mph, avg-76mph. This includes ~8 hours of optimized charging time and few hours driving under the speed limit because of police presence.
Before major Hwy system improvement (2030?), a limit would be non-stop 20 hours by BEV (Tesla Roadster?)
with a portable 50kW FC generator using reconnaissance drone and/or real-time satellite streaming.
CB - Circuit Breaker is an automatic ON/OFF electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit
from damage or fire caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit. The basic function is to interrupt current
flow after a fault is detected. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can
be reset to resume normal operation. The reset might be either a manual (residential) or an automatic (mostly commercial buildings).
The automatic reset switches ON the CB after a minute or several seconds several times after that you should reset it manually.
CCS - Combined Charging System of SAE World Standard. CCS is EV charging hardware that runs software as a protocol.
CCS supports DC charging up to 450 kW. A 350kW 'public' charging DC station is working in Berlin, Porsche headquarters from 2017.
SAE engineers play doubling voltage that reduces amperage by a factor of 2 according to Physics -- to consume such a high power
with modern hardware where a conductor diameter limited by 400A only. Any 350kW EV needs voltage reducer (from 900VDC to 450VDC) onboard,
in this case, CCS switches to double the voltage of 900VDC if the public CSS detects the reducer onboard of the EV.
So modern EV with the reducer onboard only can consume 350-450 kW, otherwise, an EV limited by 250kW.
CFV - Clean Fuel Vehicle. Any vehicle certified by the EPA that meets Federal 'emission' standards. Eg Toyota Prius
CHAdeMO - CHAarge de MOve or "How about a cup of tea?" (while you charge so fast) from the Japanese language. A Japanese Fast DC System
(name of charger/protocol and connector). It is a 'separated addition' to L2 J1772. It is licensed in Japan/US/Europe and installed on
the Nissan EVs only starting from 2020 because all other Japanise EV switched to CSS (from CHAdeMO) starting from 2018. Practically CHAdeMO
limited by 50kW in theory 400kW (a charger does not exist). From 2020 Nissan Leaf is the only EV to require the CHAdeMO charging. The Leaf
2020 is only one model with 100kW charging power. From 2011 all Japanise EV (including the Leaf) had 45-50 kW of the CHAdeMO consumption.
Charger for EV - see EVSE, CCS, and Supercharger
CPV - Concentrator PhotoVoltaic systems. An expensive solar panel cell
with an optical system of lenses or mirrors those focus (concentrate) light to increase efficiency by 50%.
DC - Direct Current [A]. DC does not change direction versus AC. Tesla and CCS level 3 chargers use 200-900 VDC,
pumping to a battery pack about 400A of DC. That allows charging an EV to 80% for 20 minutes from 450 kW CSS charger. We’re now coming close to
parity with gasoline pumping time.
Destination Charges - Consumer paid a variable delivery fee ($700-$1000) to bring a vehicle from a factory to a dealer or a customer.
Tesla included it to the EV Starting Price published on tesla.com and sometimes it delivers from factory directly to the buyer's house with
optional printed receipt and other paperwork because the Tesla.com user account has all documents.
DoD - Depth of Discharge [%] for any battery; opposite of SoC [%] - State of Charge. Eg: 1% SoC = 99% DoD that is
dangerous energy level for any Li-ion pack because full discharge (100% DoD) can kill some Li-ion pack as ➠ "Instant Death".
You would wish to recondition it, but insurance may decide it is too expensive labor and you should pay for a new pack.
DOE - U.S. Department of Energy. a federal organization is a Cabinet-level department concerned about policies
regarding energy and safety. It has many research facilities. EIA - Energy Information Agency is within DOE
DOT - U.S. Department of Transportation. a federal organization is an agency charged with the establishment,
maintenance, and regulation of public transportation. Each state may have decentralized DOT.
DRAG COEFFICIENT is a common measure in automotive design as it pertains to an Aerodynamics. The lower the drag - the
lower energy has been spent by a vehicle to resist the air mostly after 60 mph.
The slipperiest cars are: VOLKSWAGEN XL1 (non-production, because DOT does not allow cameras instead of
rear-view mirrors) has 0.19, GM EV1 - 0.21, Tesla S - 0.24, Toyota Prius - 0.26.
Tesla S has one of the best drag coefficient among production cars, while a semi-truck has the worst aerodynamic,
and semi-truck drag coefficient is almost like a parachute drag coefficient.
An example: Tesla Model "P100D" label. Where is D stands for Dual motor after the 100 kWh that is the maximum Energy-Accumulation in this Tesla battery pack.
The Energy multiplied by 4 gives an approximate max range for Tesla, for other less efficient EV you should multiply by 3 or 3.5 to get the max EV range.
The majority of EV-s have Single-speed Automatic transmission as a few cog-wheels small box. Because of the simplicity compared to ICE transmission,
the EV called "No-transmission Car". An exception is a few Electric Supercars. Eg. Porsche Taycan has a 2-speed automatic larger gear-box.
EV manufacturers have a life-time warranty on the forever sealed gear-box with synthetic oil that never requires to change.
Some Americans say: "British drive on the wrong side of the road" and less vice-versa accusations because ancestors are more tolerant of their descendants.
So, as respect to our England ancestors, we decided to drop a passenger/driver side pointers and use alike Nautical system:
R-rear, F-Front, P-Port, S-Starboard, and I - Instruments (dashboard) view.
It helps to compare any cars Side-by-Side, to point to a charger inlet (in a British car), and to organize our EV pictures. The Port Side would be the left side
for a driver of any nationality sitting in any car.
E or η - Efficiency [%] is often measured as the
ratio of useful output energy to total input energy [multiplied by 100%]. There are a few interpretations of vehicle efficiency.
A modern ICE range η is about 10%-20%. Mazda Miata
rotary engine has 26% -- the top for ICE cars. It could be interpreted to [Wh/mi] or [MPG] or [MPGe]. Modern ICE car
has a range between 10 and 42 MPG. A modern Electrical motor range is 90%-99% and also could be associated with MPGe. BMW i3
has 137 MPGe, confirmed by EPA. Powerful electric motors (in a lab or NAVY ships) cooled by liquid Nitrogen
(to achieve superconductivity) has about 99.8% efficiency while the Theoretical Thermodynamic limit of ICE is 46%. It
means no matter how much time (10.000 years) or money oil magnates will spend, in any way, more than
half the energy of ICE is wasted for noise, heat, and internal friction of hundreds moving parts.
FYI electric motor has only one moving part - rotor!
The champion of the efficiency is Dutch-made Lightyear One
because it is only one EV that uses (in order of importance):
Low drag-coefficient of the Fastback body. It is a little bit less than Tesla M3
High efficiency (~40%) durable Solar Panels 5 m2, generating a little bit less than 2kW on average during daylight.
PV panels charge a 60 kWh EV traction battery pack with speed 7mph. So, simple arithmetic:
60kWh/2kW=30hours or ~ 3 days in June for a full charge!
The LightYear EV is a more advanced version of Sion, but it is a few times more expensive than Sion. The Dutch Co. claims:
The Lightyear made 450 miles (WLTP not EPA) on a highway using only 60kWh! So, simple arithmetic
for the 'roughly estimated' (not measured) Energy Consumption: 60,000Wh/450miles=133Wh per mile or 82Wh/km.
The WLTP measured efficiency is lower than estimated - 104Wh/km. Eg. The best from Tesla EPA efficiency -
And it can drive on Sahara road with speed 12mph forever (w/o air-conditioner), 3 times faster than a Camel w/o air-conditioner too.
The Fuel Economy measured in [MPGe] is proportional to the EV efficiency [Wh/mi], AKA Energy Consumption.
Here is another trick: Park it in Airport in a sunny spot with an empty battery, fly back from your trip after a few days and the battery will be full!
E - Electric Energy [kWh] accumulated in EV battery or consumed by your household for one hour. The prime unit of
Energy in Physics is Jole [J] = 2.78×10−7 kWh. Eg: Tesla S 100D means the EV will accumulate 100
kWh and it is easy to calculate a cost of
fully charged Tesla battery at your home overnight: 100 kWh x $0.10/kWh = $10. If an EV driver lives in California
than a driver can pay 4 cents/kWh by engaging in
with local Electricity Provider. The driver just needs to call the company and provide his/her EV VIN.
Electric fire usually happens when inside wall electric cable works as a fuse: over-current goes via a wire
that is thinner then suppose to be, or a Short Circuit process has occurred. To avoid it follow NEC gauge requirements
or US Table of AWG wire sizes.
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency (Federal). An agency that protects human health and the environment by writing
and enforcing regulations.
ERAD - Electric Rear Axle Drive. The majority of EV-s are
EV - Electric Vehicle. EV uses only Electric motor(s) for propulsion
and various sources of electric energy. If the EV uses 100% battery to supply energy than it is BEV
Any EV must have a small battery pack for the energy buffering in any way, of using any other source of electricity.
A good example would be a serial hybrid such as BMW i3 with REX, or Honda Clarity FCEV has 2kWh battery pack to store/buffer Energy from the Fuel Cells
EVCS - Electric Vehicle Charging Station
EVSE - Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. The Most common EVSE is the World SAE J1772 charger.
EV has 2 kinds of charging: J1772 overnight and fast. Fast charging has geographical differences
even for the same car: Tesla superchargers are different in Europe and North America.
Equipment is an infrastructure/device that 'safely' supplies
electricity for charging of electric vehicles. The safety J1772 protocol is responsible for human and equipment protection.
It allows charging your EV on any harsh weather condition even while you are completely wet. It always communicates with
your EV onboard computer about safety and optimal parameters of charging current. It uses the J1772 protocol to do it.
EVSE is expensive because it has an electronic circuit board with a processor inside these run the J1772 protocol.
The safety protocol is similar to a near water GFCI outlet.
Both will NOT work w/o ground, and both shut down on overload, a short or current anomaly is detected.
The current anomaly is a human shock hazard current. The current of around 30 mA through the human body is
potentially sufficient to cause cardiac arrest or serious harm if it persists during even a few seconds!
If EVSE detects such current then it shuts down 'during a millisecond' and human even does not fill the
shock due the short time. Conductive molecules of water on your skin and wet close make a new circuit to kill you --
EVSE simply saves your life! To reset your EVSE: disconnect and connect it to the wall and watch for a Green LED
after the reset. Green LED is ON means EVSE or GFCI works properly/safe and ready to protect you again.
EV owner can apply for the Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit
to get a tax credit for his EVSE and a labor to install it.
eVTOL - electric Vertical Take-Off (and) Landing. The problem with Electric VTOL now is battery
Energy Density, that needs to be around 0.5 kWh/kg. The best density is 0.3 kWh/kg as of 01-2020. But there are many military Fuel-Cells-Electric VTOL-s in use, a.k.a. Drone.
F - Farad. A unit of electrical capacity measurement in electrical capacitors.
FC - Fuel Cells. Fuel cells can operate at higher efficiencies than combustion engines, and convert the chemical energy
in the fuel to electrical energy with efficiencies of up to 60%. There is many kind of FC ranging in working temperatures,
materials of cathode/anode, and what kind of fuel used to convert to the Hydrogen. Latest achievement received from Toyota: Converting sea water
to H2. You can read all this details on https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-and-fuel-cell-technologies-office
FCEV - Fuel Cells Electric Vehicle. An EV that uses Fuel Cells (FC) as a source of electricity. an FCEV is an EV with
a dual source of energy: a battery pack and an FC that charges the battery pack. An FC has long energy supply inertia,
after FC is OFF that why FCEV must have a battery pack. The electricity from FC would be stored in the batteries if your car stopped. Some people
have a misconception about FC: they think FC an ICE that burns Hydrogen instead of gasoline in an ICE car.
ICE can burn hydrogen or propane inside cylinders with adjusted carburetor -- but it wouldn't be an FCEV AKA Hydrogen EV.
It would be a hydrogen ICE. Fuels in descending order of air pollution hazard: Diesel, gasoline, liquid propane,
Liquid hydrogen. Methanol, Seawater or other substances used in a various type of FC, those must be chemically converted to Hydrogen or H2
Generator - an electric generator that produces electric energy. In the case of ICE, it is called an alternator.
The alternator produces electricity only to charge an axillary 12VDC battery. EV may have a generator that connected to small ICE
called a REx system. The Renge Extender charges the traction battery pack only
GFCI-ground fault circuit interrupter. AKA residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB) in Europe.
The device is designed to quickly (~ms) and automatically disconnect a circuit when it detects
that the electric current is not balanced between the supply and return conductors of a circuit.
Any difference between the currents in these conductors indicates leakage current, which may be a shock hazard,
so the leakage detected and GFCI relay disconnected during a few milliseconds saving your life!
The accidental circuit may be formed by conductive water molecules under a heavy rain while connecting your EV or
accidental spill of water on your clothes and skin in a kitchen. Eg: Kitchen/bathroom or near water GFCI 120VAC outlet.
GFCI circuit breaker dedicated to a single outdoor device or EVSE outlet like NEMA14-50R versus GFCI NEMA5-15R Common
outlet can serve (connected in parallel) additional 5 non-GFCI NEMA5-15R outlets. The number could be 6, that specified
by the GFCI device manufacturer.
HEV - Hybrid Electric Vehicle. We have 2 kinds of HEV - Serial (BMW i3 with REx or BMW i8) and parallel
(GM Volt and Toyota Prius). In parallel - 2 motors (Electric and ICE) work together. In serial -- while an electric motor is only
traction motor and low-efficiency ICE just produces Electric Energy. It does not make sense to produce a serial hybrid
anymore because it cost almost 2 times than similar ICE car with about 10 MPG difference!: Toyota Yaris/Prius - 42/55 MPG respectively.
The serial hybrid has a little bit less efficiency compare to BEV - 100 vs 120 MPGe. Some military forces started to
use HEV that has interesting schema: One of the 2 axles connected to an electric motor other axle has an ICE! Sync
between those 2 axles is a real challenge (and complication) but the HEV does not to be all wheels drive. One of the
controversial (and dangerous) concept of serial HEV: HEV with Thorium Nuclear Reactor. The sealed reactor (volume is about a few
meters 3) may produce enough energy during thousands years! Almost all electric motors work 24x7 well over 150 years
on water pumping stations around the World. Nobody would tell you that any ICE transmission (sometimes the ICE too) should be re-adjusted and maybe repaired
after almost 'each' drag race between Tesla and any million-dollar ICE car.
One of the odd misconceptions is: People confuse Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle with Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle,
which is an ICE vehicle, but ICE burns Hydrogen instead of gasoline. That is more dangerous and requires ICE reinforcement because
Hydrogen is more combustive than Diesel or gasoline.
History showed that HICEV did not fly
because of the more expensive fuel, the reinforced ICE cost, and a distinctive ICE service cost.
But in 2020 an Australian Co. found an adequate proportion
for a 'partial Hydrogen injection' mixed with Diesel fuel. It is still in severe testing in the harsh Australian desert using heavy trucks.
Preliminary results of the independent testing are:
Reduced Diesel consumption in the range of 5–13%
Lowered Diesel Particulate Matter Pollution by 25–80%
Removed 7–25% of Carbon Monoxide!
HOV decal/sticker - High Occupancy Vehicle lane (AKA carpool) The decal also permits to drive EV (with the sticker) w/o any
passengers on any HOV lane. Click to
view eligible EV-s in California. It is a law only in EV friendly states or countries. Eg. California and Norway.
The decal system distinguishes air polluters from non-polluters and encourages drivers to protect our Planet!
hp - horsepower. 1 hp is equal to 746 Watts. hp or Watt (kW usually) is an engine main power specification unit.
HPWC - High Power Wall Connector AKA EV charger. It is Tesla's only abbreviation. See EVSE.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
HUD - Head-Up Display - Any transparent display that presents current data without requiring users to look away from
their usual viewpoints or in the car case it is dashboard data projection over a windshield. The main problem is the data visibility while driving against Sun.
That is why Tesla Model 3 does not have it -- driving safety in the time dusk or dawn.
See also IR HUD
Hub Motor - In-Wheel motor World Leader is Elaphe Technology,
it outfits Lordstown Endurance truck with 4 motors.
ICE - Internal Combustion Engine. You have been ICEd (Jargon) - means ICE vehicle blocked (or parked on EV spot)
EV access to a public charger and your EV is frozen :). The absurd (and greed) of our civilization is: Oil magnates
spent billions during the last century to increase ICE efficiency from 10% to 20% while we have had over 90% efficiency
CLEAN electric engine! Moreover, ICE already polluted China (and Earth) air and China authority will prohibit
registering ICE cars in 2030! Moreover, ICE is 'Dead End' because the Theoretical Thermodynamic Limit of ICE is 46%. It means:
ICE maybe cleaner in the future car design but more than half energy will be always LOST! Many car manufactures (Except Volvo) continue
to spend money to increase ICE efficiency and make it cleaner
L - level. All EV in the World have L2 J1772 connector while L3 (fast charging) is an expensive option for some EV. L3 connectors are different.
US EVs have 3 different L3 connectors. Most important:
L1+L2 uses the same J1772 (in the World) protocol and adapters (Euro to US or Tesla to J1772) are simple and small wired adapters.
L3 chargers use different protocols and those require expensive ($300 Chademo to Tesla) and huge adapters with a fast computer
inside that has a task: to translate a protocol to different protocol in real-time.
Below is L1, L2, L3 - 3 Levels of EV charging. Maximum power and -- World standards of those levels:
L1 - Home overnight charging. 90-120 VAC x 16 A = 1.92 kW -- SAE J1772 in all countries with 120 VAC. The minimum ampacity is 6A.
Eg. L1 does not exist in Europe
L2 - Common public charging 208-240 VAC x 80 A = 19.2 kW -- SAE J1772. Europe has 2 kinds of J1772 connectors: US and European.
Consider to calculate charging time: All public charges in North America and Europe are maxed to 32A. The power is 240V*32A=7.7kW.
A full charge time of 24kWh battery pack would be 24/7.7 about 3 hours.
All countries EV use standard J1772 connector for L1+L2 charging including Tesla that
required small and simple J1772 adapter. Tesla EV uses J1772 standard charging protocol for L1+L2 charging. In Europe, EV driver
must have the J1772 cable onboard in US, the cable attached to the charger. There are no hanging loops of cable in European J1772 public chargers.
L2 - AC 3 phase in Europe (Zoe EV) or 3 phase Tesla EV in China. Sometimes 3 phase charger considered as a Fast Charging but it is not so fast as
CCS L3 charger
L3 - Fast charger. CCS DC 200-1000VDC up to 450 KW (currently most EV accept: 45-150 kW)
L3 - Tesla Supercharger DC up to 400 KW v3. Currently 72/120/250kW 500VDC. Future upgrade to 700 KW v4? For semi-truck - 1mW
L3 - CHAdeMO 480VDC up to 150 KW. v3 2020 - 400kW. But in real life: Only one EV in US Nissan Leaf used it from 2018,
other Japanise EV-s use CCS after 2018 because CCS is more reliable.
Only Leaf (from 2019) max accepts 90kW all other Nissan EV-s accept no more than 50kW.
Almost all EVs (including Tesla) in the World have L2 hardware onboard supported by SAE J1772 protocol as a software.
Europe doesn't have L1 because most EU countries do not have 120VAC, L2 EV
charging is 220VAC there. Urban EV drivers do not have the ampacity to install a 30A L2 J1772 charger at a condo
because of the current limit (60A/unit) in a service line that connects the condo
to the greed. The majority of EV-s accept a maximum 32A of current on L2 J1772 charger, except for a few Tesla Models - 48A,
some Tesla S and X - 80A. Tesla Supercharger operates now at 140 KW DC, many superchargers are 250 kW (Tesla V3)
and Tesla will start to produce Supercharges beyond 350 kW soon. FYI: one of the first nuclear power plants produces
just 1 MW, which can charge simultaneously only 3 Teslas. Elon Musk said: No modification on the grid
necessary, SolarCity will build solar panels to cover almost all superchargers.
Developed in 2001 the World J1772 standard defines two charging levels:
Peak Current [A]
80 (2009 standard)
Li-Ion Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries chemistry. Variety of (chemistry) Li-Ion battery used for modern EV. One of
the first Tesla S made 250,000 miles
(in harsh Finland climate)
and lost 7% of its Li-Ion original pack capacity and the car looks OK w/o any major repairs. The owner paid mostly for
tires only. What an owner would do with ICE car after a quarter of million miles?? Smart car rental companies sell new ICE
after warrantied 32,000 miles. NiMH - Nickel Metal Hydride is a predecessor of modern
rechargeable batteries that used in legendary EV1. EV1 created and destroyed by GM. It has been repossessed by force
from happy drivers and vandalized! See the documentary "Who killed Electric car?"
MEPP - Modular Electric Propulsion Platform. Audi, SEAT, Fisker Škoda and Volkswagen joint EV standardized platform as an EV architecture
developed especially for BEV from scratch with consideration of ergonomic connections between BEV systems.
(MEB in German, translated as modular electric-drive matrix) developed by the
MHEV - Mild Hybrid Engine Vehicle
is Simplified Parallel Hybrid that polute more than the Parallel hybrid,
but cost much less due use of:
#1. Smaller Li-Ion 48VDC battery pack versus a larger 320VDC Prius pack
#3. Less powerfull cheap 48VDC electric motor. See image below from greencarcongress.com
The MHEV does absolutely the same functions as the Parallel Hybrid:
MHEV Accelerates (starts) ICE car faster, while polluting less than usual ICE.
Stops engine while the Mild Hybrid is idle, e.g. on an intersection.
MHEV partially regenerates energy while the vehicle descents downhill, or it smoothly (vs. emergency) breaks saving the car's disk-breaks.
The unified around the World 48VDC MHEV system used to have a 42VDC old-conventional voltage. The initiative came from the VW group in 2018
MPG - Mile Per Gallon
MPGe - Mile Per Gallon (recalculated) equivalent used to compare a Fuel Economy between any kind of vehicles. Assuming 1MPG=1MPGe.
[MPG] is an Imperial measurement unit of Fuel Economy that is proportional to vehicle efficiency. Metric system unit is [km/l].
According to the EPA research and calculations: If 33.7kWh of electric energy
accumulated in a battery converted to electric motor Kinetic Energy would be the same as
If Energy accumulated in 1 US gallon of gasoline (E85) converted/burned to ICE Kinetic Energy.
There is a more simple method to measure the Fuel Economy for BEV, Serial Hybrid (REx is Energy supplier), and Serial Hybrid (FC is Energy supplier).
It is [W/km] or [W/mile]. It is a simple measurement of battery energy spent to move an EV for 1 mile on a flat road. The BEV efficiency is higher then Serial
Hybrid efficiency because REx or FC is additional weight to move the mile, even considering the Hybrid requeres a ~ half less of a battery weight.
A hybrid requires smaller battery compare to BEV. Moreover: "Any complication as an additional system brings reliability and efficiency down."
That is why BEV-s continue to dominate the World.
MSRP - Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price, suggested to a dealer and printed on Car Sticker. The new car sticker includes features for the MSRP.
Tesla does not follow the dealership system and does not the MSRP sticker and included Destination Charges (delivery fee) to the price.
Salesman prefers to sell an ICE (vs EV) car that brings to him more money in the future for additional repairs
and services. EV mostly does not need a service. Since 2011 (almost a decade) I paid for tires ONLY for my Nissan Leaf! No replacement or service for:
an oil, a brake pads, still healthy auxiliary 12VDC battery (constantly charged by small solar panel), etc. No belt or internal ICE chain to change, no ignition to tune.
A variable delivery fee ($700-$1000) is additional money for a dealership, that Tesla included in the Tesla Starting Price. There is the well-known fact:
so many buyers did try to buy the Nissan Leaf and end-up with a Nissan SUV polluter. The Seattle EV club (with King county permit/support) organized EV watch week
at few Bellevue, WA Nissan dealerships in 2012. I was a volunteer and educated many families
during this weekend, families who are sending me thanks emails (with few questions that I used in FAQ) after a few years of the EV experience and money savings!
NCAP - New Car Assessment Program. The EV.bingo webside uses data mostly from 2 organizations US NCAP (nhtsa.gov) and EURO NCAP (euroncap.com) for European EV models
NEC - National Electrical Code.
A Bible for any US electrician. NEC is a regionally adoptable standard for the safe installation of equipment and electrical wiring.
It is part of the National Fire Code series published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA.org), a private trade association.
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association is responsible for national electrical standards that must be
in cooperation with NEC. Eg. NEMA 14-50P is a common RV plug used by most 30A-48A J1772 EV chargers.
NEMA 5-15R a common household receptacle.
In the label NEMA (L)(X)X-XXP/R -- P stands for a Plug, R - Receptacle, and L (if present) - for Locked connector as twist&lock.
X are numbers, the most important are the last 2 digits - XX - maxed Amperage. NEMA did not create yet any standards above 60 Amp. There is no 80A
receptacle or plug. The 80A plug does not exist. That is why all EVSE above 60A must be hardwired directly to a Circuit
Breaker that is inside an Electrical Load Center or breaker box.
Neutral gear purpose in EV. EV must be driven in neutral gear if you are driving a long downhill with
a 100% charged battery pack! If EV manufacturer has not been count this situation then you will simply kill your batteries
by overcharging those during long descend. Even your EV has full control of EV regeneration, the prevention (error in software, etc),
and logic would be using the neutral gear on a long descent. Replace brake pads after overheating
is cheaper than replacing your precious battery pack. EV does not regenerate on neutral gear and your brakes work
as on any ICE car. Use pulse breaking instead of holding it during all descent. Do not afraid (but follow your balance
instinct) curving on any descent (except slippery road) because an EV has 'low center of gravity' and an EV handles curves
better than a majority of ICE sport's cars!
NEV -Neighbourhood Electric Vehicle is classified by the Department of Transportation (DOT) as a low speed vehicle,
that are legally limited to roads with posted speed limits as high as 45 miles per hour.
NPV - Nanotubes PhotoVoltaic system. Solar panel cell using Nanotubes to increase a light absorbency to almost 100%,
that increases efficiency up to 50%. Solar panel cell using Nanotubes to increase a light absorbency up to 100%, that increases efficiency by 50%.
Some expensive PV panels have 40% efficiency achieved by the selection of the best and cleanest material by NASA for space exploration.
Power - P measured in [W] Watt. according to Physics: P=I*V
PV - Photo Voltaic AKA Solar Panel. A panel's cell converts light energy into electricity.
The efficiency of common panels is 12-20%. A small solar panel has been installed on some Nissan Leafs.
Those charges the auxiliary 12 VDC battery.
See also CPV or NPV. 2 companies: Lightyear and Sono Motors
produced EV with PV to charge tracktion battery
Regenerative braking — A torque electric motor works as a generator recharging batteries using kinetic energy of
the vehicle. With normal friction brakes, a certain amount of energy is lost in the form of heat created by friction
from braking. The destruction the kinetic energy goes back into the batteries resulting in improved range.
All ICE cars wear their brake pads because ICE cars do not have a regenerative brake moreover ICE cars spend fuel to brake
in descending vs. EV-s gain energy.
REx - Range Extender (irregular abbreviation) is a small ICE engine connected to an electric generator to produce
electricity to charge an EV the traction battery. That system is defined as the true SERIAL hybrid.
Eg. BMW i3 (with REX) is the serial hybrid vs. Prius and GM Volt are not so efficient parallel hybrids.
RFID - Radio Frequency Identification. RFID card or tag (or mobile phone after 2014) is a key to open a door or engage EV charging.
Eg. Leviton RFID J1772 charger.
RFID uses Near Field Communication NFC standard. NFC is an electromagnetic field created by a coil connected to an electronic board with
different levels of security.
Any modern phone has the NFC. The phone NFC allows secure data exchange when the phone is next to another NFC device or another phone.
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers. A society that creates and supports automotive technology standards.
SAE J1772 - International Standard for Level 1 and 2 AC EV Chargers, sometimes J1772 referred to the common charging EV connector.
J1772 supports 1 phase AC charging up to 20 kW (240V/80A). In Europe it could be 3 phase.
SoC - State of Charge. Is the available capacity of the battery, expressed as a percentage [%]. 50% SoC = 50% DoD - Depth of Discharge.
SSB - Solid State Battery. Li-Ion or other chemistry battery with solid state electrolyte. The electrolyte inside any
common battery is a jelly-like dense liquid.
Supercapacitor or ultracapacitor [F-Farad]- is a high-capacity (1F-1000F) capacitor with capacitance values much higher than
common capacitors used in electronic's circuits. It is 0.1F max. It can
accept and deliver charge much faster than batteries, and tolerate many more charge and discharge cycles than
rechargeable batteries but it has low energy density and it does not hold charge long time as a battery.
Best Li-Ion battery can hold a charge during a year. From Physics point-view: The electrical energy in a capacitor
is stored in an electric field, where a battery stores its electrical energy using a chemical property of a material.
Future EV will use supercapacitors to work together with batteries.
Tesla acquired a supercapacitor maker Maxwell Technologies company in 2019.
T - Tesla [T] is a unit of magnetic flux density named after Nikola Tesla. Telsa Corp.
also named after the well-known US-European inventor Tesla.
Trademark letter T is a logo for Tesla Energy Corp.
that makes the best EV in the World, has the largest and dense network of level 3 fast Superchargers.
It produces battery and solar panel. Best car manufactures lost customers to Tesla and those
Co. are trying to achieve Tesla's benchmark. In 2016 Tesla giveaway almost all Tesla patents to bring EV
competition on a sufficient level. If you are buying an EV and would like to travel/drive 'anywhere', a Tesla
should be your first choice while other EV-s (today) are just local commuters due to a limited network of level 3 fast chargers.
UL certification. UL - Underwriters Laboratories now serve 113 countries
(since 1894) to test toxic materials, dangerous electrical equipment and components to provide World/public safety
standards and building inspections. All your EV and EVSE components must be UL certified or UL listed. Any
equipment with dangerous voltage/power should be UL certified.
V2G - Vehicle-to-Grid enables energy stored in electric vehicles to be fed back into the national electricity network,
otherwise known as the grid, to help supply energy at times of peak demand. A.k.a Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) that
was 1st initiated in 2012 as a bidirectional Grid Integrated Vehicle (GIVe) project. EV owners can provide electricity to their
Houses (V2H) in the case of electrical outages by using BEVs.
Also, any Tesla has on-board-software protection against the 100% DoD (Depth of Discharge) or battery pack Sudden Death.
V - Volt [V] is the electric potential difference between two points. North America has few kinds of AC voltage:
480V 3 phase in commercial buildings and 240V Single-phase, that does split to 120V
in a household by a Distribution Transformer. See pic. According NEC - Ground Bar connected to Neutral wire only in main Load Center, it must be separated
or disconnected from Neutral in other Load Breaker boxes.
Europe's household has a 220VAC and no Level 1 J1772 charging.
[V] is always capitilized to honor the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827).
VAC - Volts of Alternating Current. Versus VDC - Volts of Direct Current DC. Eg: 240 VAC is common Single-phase
voltage of service line for North American households.
VIN - Vehicle Identification Number. The VIN is a unique sequence of 17 characters. Those contain basic vehicle
specifications, year, place of the car production and the last 6 characters are the vehicle serial number. A VIN can
be found inside the driver's side door, open the door and look at the door post (where the door latches when
it is closed). Also, it is on the driver corner of the dashboard where it meets the windshield.
W - Watt is the measurement of Power [W] Classic definition of the 1 Watt of Power is an Energy
produced/consumed during one second. 1 [hp] horsepower is 746 watts. Electricians define [kW] kilo-Watt (eg. consumed power) as
10 Amps consumed by a load with a voltage of 100 Volts on the load contacts. Or Pload = 10A X 100V = 1000W
WLTP - Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure sometimes has more optimistic data then EPA. US EPA.gov is an older organization than
WLTP that is EU organization and it has a slightly different approach to measure the range and efficiency. "Accurate-yes!, precise, maybe."
Usually, EPA range is a few % lower
than WLTP range for the same EV, eg. BMW i3. That is a good treatment for a Range Anxiety :).
[Wh] - Watt-hour is a unit of energy equivalent to one watt [W] of power consumed/supplied for one
hour of time. [kWh] is the most ordinarily used unit of electric energy that interpreted as 1kWh=1000Wh. See your electric statement.