EV drivers Frequently Asked Questions

I collected the following questions from my EV public lectures during the last decade. One of these: "EV Driver Survival Guide"

  1. ➛ Environment
    An electric motor does NOT have the deadly (CO2) emission! Any Diesel is prohibited to use inside even large spaces (warehouse) because it killed so many poor people at home with electric outages who did not know: to run the ICE could be deadly inside any building. Also the dark story from The Holocaust: Nazi SS officer Roschmann (Butcher of Riga) used an ICE exhaust for less than 15 minutes as the cheapest method to kill about 20 Jewish prisoners inside moving Death Truck. The rumor: Hitler complimented Roschmann for the invention of the "such efficient killing machine". The deadly emission from the ICE is considered the main factor of Climate Change. About 2 Billion ICE vehicles cars responsible for about 80% of our Planet air pollution.
  2. ➛ Efficiency
    The Efficiency of an electric motor approximately 5 times more than ICE! E.g. on average an ICE versus Electric motor: 20MPG vs 120MPGe, 20% versus 97% (Tesla permanent magnet synchronous motors). The first ICE efficiency was less than 10%. How many billions of dollars ICE companies spent on R&D to gain just 10% during about 200 years?? More than half the energy of an ICE is wasted for noise, heat, and internal friction of hundreds of moving parts. FYI: electric motor has only one moving part - rotor. That has air-friction versus oil friction in ICE.
  3. ➛ Simplicity and Easy Implementation
    EV (also as a modern plane) has a "Drive-by-Wire" system that does not require any mechanical interface between controls and controlled devices. One moving part in an electric motor vs. hundreds in an ICE car. An example is self-upgrading and self-driving Tesla. That returned vehicle leadership to the US! It is challenging to implement many EV inventions to the ICE car, some time is impossible to do it at all. Electronics does not require a Mechanical Interface between electric motor and EV controls. Versus the Mechanical Interface must be implemented for the ICE connected to any controls. E.g: "Throttle metal cable of gas pedal" EV does not need to have that Mechanical Interface, everything implemented by hardware (System-board) and software. That allows updating and improving EV instantly -- not in the next model (next year) like in the case of an ICE car.
  4. ➛ Low-cost ownership or Maintenance
    The fact: EV owner pays mostly for tires versus ICE complicated and expensive (every 3000-5000 miles!) pre-scheduled services.
    One of the most expensive (hundreds $$) scheduled ICE maintenance is the "Timing Belt Service (Adjustment) and Replacement every 60,000 miles" on old cars, or ICE and transmission oil regular changes. Versus an EV's maintenance items will generally wear tires (but not brake's pads!!) at a predictable rate and should not represent a significant yearly cost, nor will there be an expensive service in the future.
    The majority of EV-s have Single-speed Automatic transmission as as few cog-wheels inside a sealed forever box. Because of the simplicity compared to ICE transmission, the EV called "No-transmission Car". An exception is a few Electric Supercars. Eg. Porsche Taycan has a 2-speed automatic larger gear-box. EV manufacturers have a life-time warranty on the forever sealed gear-box with synthetic oil that never requires to change.
    Steve P: "Bought my Nissan Leaf in 2011, paid $32,000 cash, no tax on EV in Washington State, made ~100kMiles. NO maintenance during little then a decade -- CHANGED TIRES ONLY -- once !!. Driving 100k on an ICE requires 5000 gallons of gas for a regular 20mpg ICE car. Let's multiply 5000 gl * $3.5/gl = $17500!! It paid more than 50% of the EV! My Leaf has an original auxiliary 12VDC battery that is constantly charged by an original build-in 1 ft2 solar panel. Leaf EV is the most thrifty commuter in the World."
  5. ➛ Lifespan
    Fact #1: Almost all electric motors work 24x7 well over 150 years on water pumping stations around the World.
    Fact #2: Tesla Model S Guinness record holder poised to hit 1.2-million km (745,650mi) milestone in Germany Owner paid practically for tires only -- From Teslarati.com: "Since 2014, the Model S P85 had required a battery change at 470,000 km. These repairs were all covered under the vehicle’s warranty, however, resulting in very little maintenance costs for the Tesla owner.
    Fact #3: One of the first Tesla Model S has been driven 250,000 miles in harsh Norwegian climate, lost 7%-8% of battery capacity, looks like new and owner paid for tires only during all years. Tesla examined his car for a few days and predicted the owner maybe will replace the battery pack after a half-million miles or erlier and it will be almost a new car again! The bottleneck of EV-s is the battery, but there is gossip about Tesla million miles battery pack for Tesla Roadster 2. V3 supercharger charging time is almost the same if the ICE car driver fills the full tank and stands in line to pay for it in the crowded gas store. Tesla driver omitted payment process for supercharging -- It is online made instantly and the driver sees the charge upon the completion via a phone app or any laptop browser. Can an ICE car make a million miles? If yes how much $$ owner will spend for oil and parts replacements? Also do not forget expensive ICE labor. A million-dollar ICE car needs expensive ICE tuning and transmission parts replacement after each harsh drag racing with Tesla. Tesla systems could be analyzed remotely and get maybe a free software upgrade and to race better next time.
  6. ➛ Torque
    An electric motor produces peak torque at zero RPM with a more power-to-weight ratio than ICE, meaning acceleration is theoretically instant on EV! It means safe merging in front of semi-truck into the highway traffic if you drive an EV. The Automatic Brake Hold retains brake pressure when the vehicle comes to a full stop even if you are 'not holding the brake'. You may rest your foot on the accelerator pedal ready for the green light. This feature prevents your vehicle from 'rolling back' on a steep hill and may prevent your car from hitting something or somebody behind!! The brake engagement requires a firm press and short hold on the brake and after -- you will appreciate the magic and safety of modern technology. It works more reliable on an EV than an ICE car because of the 'INSTANT TORQUE' OF ELECTRIC ENGINE. Many car makers have tried to implement this necessary safety feature on heavy ICE trucks for a long time. But you can not argue with the Kinetics (Mechanics➛Physics). Any ICE needs 'a time' to gain rotation to get such torque. Warning from the future: "Do not stay behind an ICE truck on a steep hill!"
    ICE needs max RPM to produce the peak torque. Almost all million dollars ICE cars lose to Tesla S on a 'short' drag race.
  7. ➛ An electric motor regenerates energy
    While Electric motor produces energy driving downhill or on EV breaking, eg. on a red light. The (more pollution) part heavy ICE track consumes more energy on a descent because it can not rely on brakes and it breaking down by ICE. Swiss Engineers invented the heaviest EV track on Earth. It is so powerful, the charger for it has not been made! How EV works w/o charger!? It means Free Energy! Not exactly - it called gravity at work or transferring potential energy to kinetic one. Loaded track regenerated the same amount of energy while going downhill. This energy is enough to get it back up to the hill to continue those cycles. The mass of an ore (+truck) is the potential energy and an EV computer controls the ore load on the top of the mount. Simple physics but Stanford professor (in particle physics) become very emotional (as happy) after I delivered this news to him!
  8. ➛ Low center of gravity
    floor A floor integrated battery pack has been distributed or lay-down around the EV floor that significantly changes stability and road curving due to the low center of gravity. That makes fun to curve on EV, moreover, the EV safe balance and maneuverability is much better than the majority of a sport ICE car
  9. ➛ Break-in period
    You can drive @max-speed and severely test any EV immediately after your purchase. The break-in period for an ICE is 200-1000 miles depends on a model. This Feature attracted many German customers to buy EV.
  10. ➛ Finally, Science and the Future
    The Theoretical Thermodynamic limit of ICE is 46%! It means no matter how much time (10.000 years?) or money oil magnates will spend, in any way, half of the ICE energy would be wasted for noise and heat, always.
You should know 2 things about your EV before to buy a home or mobile charger for it:
1. What is maximum current (or power=current*240V) your EV can accept/charge? Usually, it is 32A or 240VAC*32A=7.68kW ~ 7.7kW of the max charging power. Tesla S can accept up to 80A. If your EV accepts 32A max than you should buy a 40A Charger for it. See the list of the best chargers
2. If you plan to charge more frequently out of your apartment than you should buy a mobile charger. If you have a house (or a garage) than buy a stationary charger that will save you money: your EV's battery pack will live longer because you do less fast charging and you have cheaper electricity at home than it cost to charge your EV at public charger (it maybe 2 times the difference). If you have solar panels than it is FREE charge, for your EV!
You can charge your EV:
  • use (240VAC*30A=7.2kW) dryer outlet (overnight charge) or regular wall outlet (slowest charge). You need an adapter: from your dryer outlet to your EV charger plug, that will cost for you about $30-$50 depends from the cable length.
  • Non-NEMA CS8264 "Garbage compactor" connector will cost you $130. If you live in a complex and pay a joint el. bill than you may consider making an adapter and charge overnight from the compactor, consider it compacts once in a working day for 10 minutes.
On a trip:
Use well-known apps to locate public chargers: ChargePoint, OpenCharge, alternative Fuels Data Center. The best sites are: Energy.gov which includes hydrogen stations and google.com/maps. The majority of networks provide explicit info and real-time availability but networks not integrated with EV like the Tesla network integrated with Tesla EV-s. Eg. 'only' Tesla redirect your autopilot automatically to the nearest supercharger in case you programmed your onboard map to reach a blackout city. The redirection happens in real-time, less then a minute from the electric outage occurrence. That is why Rivian would like to invest in its own fast chargers network to catch Tesla on reliability.
  • L3 DC fast chargers: See Tesla.com/supercharger or CCS/CHAdeMO chargers, finding it: energy.gov has all charging stations including private! evgo.com has its network only versus map.openchargemap.io has all networks
  • Public EV J1772 L2 chargers for overnight charging next to your motel - chargepoint.com. From 2019 maps.google.com has local chargers' current availability info.
  • Samaritan's electrical outlets - PlugShare.com
    RV parking outlet is a common NEMA 14-50 (240VAC*50A=12kW). You should download an app (eg. RV Parky) to your mobile phone to find those. Some campgrounds/warehouses have a NEMA 14-50 outlets and regular one - 120VAC. Any small living complex may have a garbage compactor or laundromat with a 240VAC outlet. Any Christmas lights, gas station, or public bathroom has a regular 120VAC outlet.
  • In EU, where is you should have at least 2 cables for AC public chargers, Bosh tryes to make an order in payments and finding all kind of chargers.
In an emergency:
  • If you did not reach your destination by a few dozen miles - in order to get to a fast charger or hotel you can charge your EV during a few hours if you have
    - a portable FC or diesel 240VAC electrical generator. For some generator's outlet would need a ground rod, some generators - do not require the ground. So, if your J1772 charger does not start than graound the sorce 240VAC outlet on the generator.
    - 12x170W portable flexible solar panels with 3 micro-inverters providing 240VAC - 2kW of power.
  • You can tow your car in drive gear mode with LOW SPEED using strong enough (3 tons) especial tow rope. Some manufactures do not recommend tow-charge an EV. It is the same physical process of an EV power regeneration as you driving a downhill that is under on-board computer control. Youtube has few clips of "speed-controlled-tow-charging-success-Tesla-Model-3" with no more than 20mph!! With this speed the towing charge is approx 1kWh/mile. If your EV has a 70kWh pack than you need approx 70 miles or 3.5 hours to fully charge your battery.
  • Only an electrician can connect you to the electrical pole wires using 2 especial hooks-connectors. Just remember your portable J1772 charger will not start without connection to a ground (rod). Hooks-connectors (telescopic) are uncommon for N. America but it in use in other countries.

Any traction battery pack manufacterer recomends to fast charge the battery to 80% and drive. Even with slow overnight charge a manufacturer does not recomend to charge it to 100% moreover, if you will not travel a long distance next morning. A fast charge to 80% prevents your battery pack to overheat and be more healthy. It is not good for the pack health to pump electrons 'to fast' using a fast charger. An EV on-board computer stops to charge it at 80% or sometime little bit earlier according of the battery temperature and other conditions to make your batteries livespan longer.

Longer life conditions for your battery:
  1. Do not discharge below 10%, below 1%-3% could be a deadly for some batteries.
  2. Do not overcharge above 80%-90%
  3. Temperature range should be: from 40°F to 113°F (5° - 45°C)
  4. Charge as slow as possible. Overnight charging is preferable over fast charging. If you travel -- find a hotel with or near a Level 2 public (Destination) charger to charge your EV overnight
  5. Discharge to 0% may kill some packs instantly. Charge to 100% count as the complete cycle and some modern packs have 1,000-5,000 full cycles life limit depends from chemistry and manufacturer. Sometime Tesla protects it's batteries by reducing real energy pack value on some EVs as we learned on the hurricane news 2017 in Florida. Nothing wrong with this picture: if customer/driver paid for 80KWh and Tesla gifted/unlocked to stressed drivers 85KWh moreover, in the emergency citation. May be only Tesla sacrifices it's own profit for the quality and the battery pack longer life because Tesla driver paid for 80kWh but surprisingly got 85kWh. Tesla's Model 3 2018, battery pack costs $190 per kWh, and General Motor's 2017 Chevrolet Bolt battery pack is estimated to cost about $205 per kWh.

  1. Never discharge it below 1%! and leave it always over 10%-30% in the case your EV would be unattended for a long time. Battery leak for Tesla M3 is approx a few miles per day with everything (Century mode, Climate control.etc) are OFF
  2. Call a towing truck if it below 3% and you did not make your destination. Tow your EV to any closer Level 2 charger (not L3 fast one) because fast or Supercharger will not start (sometime) with a cold and almost empty battery pack. It is better to pay a hundred $$ for the tow truck than a thousand $$ for your EV pack repair. Usually, it never happened if you plan your trip well.
  3. Some Li-ion packs die if you discharge it to 0%
    Some EV maker can void a traction battery warranty if they would prove that you missed a charging station deliberately according to a "Black Box" (if your EV has one) and you did bring your battery pack few times for a repair already.
  4. Do not charge it above 90% and 95% even you plan a long trip. Modern Li-Ion pack has approximately 1,000-3,000 cycles if you charge from 1% to 100%. Or in this case, theoretically, you can charge your EV during 5-10 years (100% charge for 300 miles/day) and the pack should lose up to 30% after all. BUT if you will charge each day from 10% to 80% you may drive up to 2 or 3 times longer (280 miles/day) to get the same degradation because a partial charging does not count as a full cycle.
    See some life samples of a Battery Degradation
    The first Tesla S made 250,000 miles (in harsh Finland climate) and lost 7% of its Li-Ion original pack capacity and the car looks OK w/o any major repairs. The owner paid mostly for tires only. What an owner would do with ICE car after a quarter of million miles?? Some rental car companies with Smart Management do sell a new ICE car after warranty of 32,000 miles is expired paying only for an oil change 6 times. There is no oil change in EV!
  5. An EV should be driven in the neutral gear if you are driving a long downhill with a 100% charged battery pack! If EV manufacturer (a startup) has not been count this situation then you will simply kill your batteries by overcharging those during long descend. Even your EV has full control of regeneration, the prevention (error in software, etc) and logic of saving energy (if you need to drive longer distance) -- would be the use of neutral gear. Replace brake pads after over-wearing (or overheating) is cheaper than replacing the expensive battery pack. As a matter of fact: EV does not regenerate on the neutral gear and your brakes work as regular brakes on ICE car. Use pulse breaking (exercise your muscles) instead of holding it during all descent. Do not afraid (but follow your balance instinct) curving on any descent (except slippery road) because EV has 'low center of gravity' and EV handles curves better than the majority of ICE sports cars!

No, because it is not just a simple wiring adapter like a Tesla to J1772. Communications protocols are different for those fast chargers and you need a real-time protocol translator based on a good processor (as a computer processor). FYI: Tesla Corp. has created Tesla to CHAdeMO adapter (~$450) with processor and software inside.
An electrician can make for 20 minutes any wired adapter that will connect eg. your dryer outlet to your charger (EVSE) plug. CCS is the only competitor to the Tesla Supercharger. Tesla made the CHAdeMO adapter to promote the fast charger and fight the main CSS competitor. To make the adapter it is making real-time protocol translator. Eg. an Arduino with a 'proprietary translator software' can do it. It is much easy to translate CCS J1772 protocol to Tesla then CCS because a Tesla charging protocol based on J1772 protocol, that why you can charge a Tesla from any public J1772 charger just using a simple adapter with few wires inside, provided by Tesla with any Tesla car.

  • Model: In 1828, Ányos Jedlik, a Hungarian who invented an early prototype of an electric motor, created a small 'car-model' powered by his new motor
  • Practical Model: The first known 'practical' electric car was built in 1837 by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen, England
  • Production EV: English inventor Thomas Parker, who was responsible for innovations such as electrifying the London Underground, overhead tramways in Liverpool and Birmingham, and the smokeless fuel, built the first 'production' electric car in London in 1884
  • EV Taxi in New York (at the end of 18 century) had been sabotaged by Oil Magnates The smart destruction of the EV Taxi based on a mixing of 'property types'. After the EV success and threat to lose oil money, magnates evil step was: "The charging is too long, let's build a battery pack 'public' swaping stations" The built Public Statins (for a 'private' battery packs) created chaos, many disputes, and the end of the EV Taxi. Like we have similar History lessons of our Civilization: Communism (called Utopia by its creator) ended almost all countries this try to implement a different flavor of it. One of the Communistic principles to insert the 'Major Public Property' to the private property domain but the domain is a native to any human. A toddler without any judgment or understanding says: "It is MY toy".
  • Out of our Planet: There is no place for ICE cars because of the absence of O2. The three EV rovers are exploring Mars. Few EVs are currently parked on the moon. Tesla Roadster would be captured by Martian colony in the future. Now it is in the orbit between Earth and Mars. Also, NASA prepared many EV-rovers for future exploration.
  • Highway-capable most remarkable production EV-s in modern history:
    1. GM EV1 1996 - vandalized by its creator! See the documentary: "Who kills electric car". Lowest drag coefficient in history of any production cars--0.19
    2. Nissan Leaf 2011 - First reliable EV with almost 100 miles on a highway
    3. BMW i3 2013 with ReX - 'SERIAL' Hybrid real success story, but has a bicycle tires
    4. Tesla S 2012 - best of the best, but expensive
    5. Tesla model 3 2017 - Best affordable EV -- the beginning of the end of all non-efficient ICE polluters.

Yes, only one time on mount road uphill driving my Leaf. During the last decade I drow my Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model 3, and Toyota RAF 4 with NiCd batteries. I did not make my destination just a mile short.
"Usually, people who stuck w/o gasoline - stuck w/o electric energy!"

Do not drive from 100% to 0% and measure the driven distance. It is dangerous for your battery!
Ask your manufacturer to measure the degradation if you have some doubts and you are not a technical person.
Here are excellent links to follow
Few labs in 2019 tested a modern Li-ion cell for 1 million miles with degradation approx 50%. Even in a Mercedes ICE car 'everything' has been replaced after a half-million mile and it's frame and body only may drive to 1 million. Some Electric motors work 24x7 a 100 years on water pumping station replacing bearings and brushes. All modern electric motors are brush-less, have composite bearings forever and lifetime warranty. EV traction pack usually has 50-75 k-miles warranty of 20-30% degradation. For more explicit info on a battery visit batteryUniversity.com

teslaBack No. The panel charges the Auxiliary 12VDC battery only. There is a few advantages:

  1. Never replaced the 12V lead–acid battery for the decade. I have Nissan Leaf 2011 (90k miles) with HEALTHY original auxiliary battery. Consider, the best Lead battery lifespan is 5 years.
  2. Almost no Phantom Drain on Leaf like my Tesla Model 3 has 0.5%-1% per day because the most energy goes to charge Tesla auxiliary battery.

Yes, any EV can charge from any Tesla Destination Charger using the simple (4 wires) JDapter because Tesla uses J1772 charging protocol on any Tesla's chargers, including Tesla's Home (Wall Connector) and mobile chargers (Mobile Connector). JDapter does not fit to Tesla Destination charger in Europe.
The next answer may be dedicated to a Darwin Award Winner of the year :
The answer is NO for L3 DC Superchargers!! Even your JDapter fits. Tesla protocol is smart enough to detect that you try to supply 400VDC to 240VAC circuits, but if not? Do you aspire to win the award??

EV Drivetrains:

An example: Tesla Model "P100D" label. Where is D stands for Dual motor after the 100 kWh that is the maximum Energy-Accumulation in this Tesla battery pack. The Energy multiplied by 4 gives an approximate max range for Tesla, for other less efficient EV you should multiply by 3 or 3.5 to get the max EV range.
The majority of EV-s have Single-speed Automatic transmission as a few cog-wheels small box. Because of the simplicity compared to ICE transmission, the EV called "No-transmission Car". An exception is a few Electric Supercars. Eg. Porsche Taycan has a 2-speed automatic larger gear-box.
EV manufacturers have a life-time warranty on the forever sealed gear-box with synthetic oil that never requires to change.
Some Americans say: "British drive on the wrong side of the road" and less vice-versa accusations because ancestors are more tolerant of their descendants. So, as respect to our England ancestors, we decided to drop a passenger/driver side pointers and use alike Nautical system: R-rear, F-Front, P-Port, S-Starboard, and I - Instruments (dashboard) view.
It helps to compare any cars Side-by-Side, to point to a charger inlet (in a British car), and to organize our EV pictures. The Port Side would be the left side for a driver of any nationality sitting in any car.

teslaBack P - stands for Performance. The major difference between Tesla and Tesla P: Performance Tesla mostly has been optimized for racing, specifically for drag-racing or maximum mechanical power burst from motors in a short time. Sometimes the power optimization brings the efficiency and the range slightly down. Eg. Model S P100D 2017 accelerates for 2.4 seconds from 0 to 60mph and has combined 98MPGe vs. similar Model S 100D accelerates for 3.4 seconds and 102MPGe respectively.

Letter P - stands for Performance. The major difference between Tesla and Tesla P: Performance Tesla mostly has been optimized for a racing and a speed, specifically for drag-racing or maximum mechanical power burst from motors in a short time. Sometimes the power optimization brings the efficiency and the range slightly down. Eg. Model S P100D 2017 accelerates for 2.4 seconds from 0 to 60mph and has combined 98MPGe vs. similar Model S 100D accelerates for 3.4 seconds and 102MPGe respectively. Model S P100D 2020 has EPA-estimated 348 miles of range. Vs. 100D 2020 has EPA-estimated 373 miles

If you do not have 240VAC in your Main Load Center ➠ You share your outdoor distribution transformer with your neughbor. And only professional electrician will show you the neughbor with whom you share it. The fast and cheap solution would be my Doubler that connects to your neughbor 120VAC outlet and your 120VAC outlet. With my patented Doubler you will not burn electronics in both houses if you try connect it to a heughbor outlet that is from a different outdoor distribution transformer. Moreover my Doubler has accumulative kWh meter that you can shaw each month or year to pay to your neughbor for exact energy consumed by your EV.

The expencive and stationary solution would be to get new Service Line from your Electric Provider

➛ BEV-s drive near the North Pole at harsh Winter conditions

EV as ICE car can drive in harsh road conditions: See results, winter driving data, tips, and video of real winter testing in Norway Feb 2018, near-polar temperature by brave EV club members.
Tested 5 most popular Europian BEV [A ➛ Z]:

  • BMW i3
  • Hyundai IONIQ
  • Nissan LEAF 2nd gen
  • Opel, Ampera-e (GM Bolt in US)
  • Volkswagen, eGolf
Norwegian Automobile Federation:

Yes, the EV range is affected by low temperatures, as well as charging time. And EV-s do not have a free heat as ICE cars have. But Norwegians would drive their EV-s forever, there is no back to ICE cars!
Norway’s government subsidizes EV sales up to 50% with no sale tax and maybe it will ban a new ICE (noncommercial) cars to sell by 2025. 12 Electric Cars Jan 2020 Testing in Norway

It does not convert the voltage, but it controls the current accordingly and protects you. The EVSE has a computer inside that runs safety J1772 protocol. It is responsible for your safety and your EV safety. Eg: You can start to charge your EV with 240VAC while you standing in water in heavy shower and wind, you are 100% wet! You should not have any fear to be electrocuted while you are wet and you see green safety light is on at any public charger. Also, it never overcharges your EV batteries and it increases and decreases amperage according to your EV onboard computer requirements and temperature measurements. You can charge your EV anywhere on earth on any public chargers with J1772 plug. Modern level 3 public charger has 900VDC dangerous voltage that may instantly ash any wet human if it would run w/o the safety protocol. The safety protocol is checking first - ground, second what did you connect to it and also other things and only after it is recognized the EV and all necessary specification, it turns on itself. If you disconnect a plug the EVSE dangerous voltage turns off itself during one millisecond! It has the same protection principles as 120VAC household GFCI outlet mounted next to a water faucet.